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看板管理---掌控生产现场

发表时间:2019-10-31 14:22:06

JIT生产方式是以降低成本为基本目的,在生产系统的各个环节全面展开的一种使生产有效进行的新型生产方式。JIT又采用了看板管理工具,看板犹如巧妙连接各道工序的神经而发挥着重要作用。电子看板优点:形象、简洁、清晰、明确。


1.看板管理的概念


看板管理方法是在同一道工序或者前后工序之间进行物流或信息流的传递。JIT是一种拉动式的管理方式,它需要从最后一道工序通过信息流向上一道工序传递信息,这种传递信息的载体就是看板。没有看板,JIT是无法进行的。因此,JIT生产方式有时也被称作看板生产方式。


YIDANZHUSHENGCHANJIHUAQUEDINGYIHOU,JIUHUIXIANGGEGESHENGCHANCHEJIANXIADASHENGCHANZHILING,RANHOUMEIYIGESHENGCHANCHEJIANYOUXIANGQIANMIANDEGEDAOGONGXUXIADASHENGCHANZHILING,ZUIHOUZAIXIANGCANGKUGUANLIBUMEN、CAIGOUBUMENXIADAXIANGYINGDEZHILING。ZHEIXIESHENGCHANZHILINGDECHUANDIDOUSHITONGGUOKANBANLAIWANCHENGDE。


2.看板管理与MRP的关系


SUIZHEXINXIJISHUDEFEISUFAZHAN,DANGQIANDEKANBANFANGSHICHENGXIANCHUZHUJIANBEIDIANNAOSUOQUDAI。MRPXITONGJIUSHIJIANGJITSHENGCHANZHIJIANDEKANBANYONGDIANNAOLAIDAITI,MEIYIDAOGONGXUZHIJIANDOUJINXINGLIANWANG,ZHILINGDEXIADA、GONGXUZHIJIANDEXINXIGOUTONGDOUTONGGUODIANNAOLAIWANCHENG。


MUQIANGUONEIYOUHENDUOQIYEDOUZAITUIXINGMRP,DANZHENZHENGHUODECHENGGONGDEQUEHENSHAO,QIZHONGDEZHUYAOYUANYINJIUSHIQIYEZAIMEIYOUSHIXINGJITDEQINGKUANGXIAJIUZHIJIETUIXINGMRP。SHIJISHANG,MRPZHIBUGUOSHIYIZHONGJIANGZHONGDUOFUZADESHOUGONGCAOZUODIANNAOHUADERUANJIAN,SUIRANNENGGOUDADATIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,DANSHIBINGBUNENGCHULIJITSUOTICHUDEYIXIEGUANNIANHEFANGFA。YINCI,MRPJINJINSHIYIGEGONGJU,BIXUJIANLIZAITUIXINGJITDEJICHUZHISHANG。RUGUOQIYEMEIYOUTUIXINGJITJIUQUZHIJIESHIYONGMRP,NEIZHIHUILANGFEISHIJIANHEJINQIAN。


3.看板管理的机能


KANBANZUICHUSHIFENGTIANQICHEGONGSIYU20SHIJI50NIANDAICONGCHAOJISHICHANGDEYUNXINGJIZHIZHONGDEDAOQISHI,ZUOWEIYIZHONGSHENGCHAN、YUNSONGZHILINGDECHUANDIGONGJUERBEICHUANGZAOCHULAIDE。JINGGUOJIN50NIANDEFAZHANHEWANSHAN,MUQIANYIJINGZAIHENDUOFANGMIANDOUFAHUIZHEZHONGYAODEJINENG。


生产及运送工作指令


生产及运送工作指令是看板管理最基本的机能。公司总部的生产管理部根据市场预测及订货而制定的生产指令只下达到总装配线,各道前工序的生产都根据看板来进行。看板中记载着生产和运送的数量、时间、目的地、放置场所、搬运工具等信息,从装配工序逐次向前工序追溯。  


ZAIZHUANGPEIXIANJIANGSUOSHIYONGDELINGBUJIANSHANGSUODAIDEKANBANQUXIA,YICIZAIQUQIANYIDAOGONGXULINGQU。QIANGONGXUZEZHISHENGCHANBEIZHEIXIEKANBANSUOLINGZOUDELIANG,“HOUGONGXULINGQU”JI“SHISHISHILIANGSHENGCHAN”JIUSHITONGGUOZHEIXIEKANBANLAISHIXIANDE。   


防止过量生产和过量运送


KANBANBIXUANZHAOJIDINGDEYUNYONGGUIZELAISHIYONG。QIZHONGDEGUIZEZHIYISHI:“MEIYOUKANBANBUNENGSHENGCHAN,YEBUNENGYUNSONG。”GENJUZHEIYIGUIZE,GEGONGXURUGUOMEIYOUKANBAN,JIUJIBUJINXINGSHENGCHAN,YEBUJINXINGYUNSONG;KANBANSHULIANGJIANSHAO,ZESHENGCHANLIANGYEXIANGYINGJIANSHAO。YOUYUKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEZHISHIBIYAODELIANG,YINCIYUNYONGKANBANNENGGOUZUODAOZIDONGFANGZHIGUOLIANGSHENGCHAN、GUOLIANGYUNSONG。


进行“目视管理”的工具


KANBANDELINGYITIAOYUNYONGGUIZESHI“KANBANBIXUFUZAISHIWUSHANGCUNFANG”、“QIANGONGXUANZHAOKANBANQUXIADESHUNXUJINXINGSHENGCHAN”。GENJUZHEIYIGUIZE,ZUOYEXIANCHANGDEGUANLIRENYUANDUISHENGCHANDEYOUXIANSHUNXUNENGGOUYIMULERAN,HENRONGYIGUANLI。ZHIYAOTONGGUOKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEXINXI,JIUKEZHIDAOHOUGONGXUDEZUOYEJINZHANQINGKUANG、BENGONGXUDESHENGCHANNENGLILIYONGQINGKUANG、KUCUNQINGKUANGYIJIRENYUANDEPEIZHIQINGKUANGDENG。  


改善的工具


看板管理的改善功能主要通过减少看板的数量来实现。看板数量的减少意味着工序间在制品库存量的减少。如果在制品存量较高,即使设备出现故障、不良产品数目增加,也不会影响到后工序的生产,所以容易掩盖问题。在JIT生产方式中,通过不断减少数量来减少在制品库存,就使得上述问题不可能被无视。这样通过改善活动不仅解决了问题,还使生产线的“体质”得到了加强。


4.看板操作的使用规则


KANBANSHIJITSHENGCHANFANGSHIZHONGDUJUTESEDEGUANLIGONGJU,KANBANDECAOZUOBIXUYANGEFUHEGUIFAN,FOUZEJIUHUIXIANRUXINGSHIZHUYIDENITAN,QIBUDAOYINGYOUDEXIAOGUO。GAIKUODIJIANG,KANBANCAOZUOGUOCHENGZHONGYINGGAIZHUYIYIXIASHIYONGYUANZE:MEIYOUKANBANBUNENGSHENGCHANYEBUNENGBANYUN,KANBANZHINENGLAIZIHOUGONGXU,QIANGONGXUZHINENGSHENGCHANQUZOUDEBUFEN,QIANGONGXUANSHOUDAOKANBANDESHUNXUJINXINGSHENGCHAN,KANBANBIXUHESHIWUYIQIYIJIBUBABULIANGPINJIAOJIHOUGONGXU。


5.看板管理的种类


看板管理的本质是在需要的时间,按需要的量对所需零部件发出生产指令的一种信息媒介体,而实现这一功能的形式可以是多种多样的。看板总体上分为三大类:传送看板、生产看板和临时看板。


工序内看板


GONGXUNEIKANBANSHIZHIMOUGONGXUJINXINGJIAGONGSHISUOYONGDEKANBAN。ZHEIZHONGKANBANYONGYUZHUANGPEIXIANYIJIJISHISHENGCHANDUOZHONGCHANPINYEBUXUYAOSHIZHIXINGDEZUOYEGENGHUANSHIJIAN(ZUOYEGENGHUANSHIJIANJIEJINYULING)DEGONGXU,LIRUJIJIAGONGGONGXUDENG。


信号看板


XINHAOKANBANSHIZAIBUDEBUJINXINGCHENGPISHENGCHANDEGONGXUZHIJIANSUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。LIRUSHUZHICHENGXINGGONGXU、MODUANGONGXUDENG。XINHAOKANBANGUAZAICHENGPIZHIZUOCHUDECHANPINSHANG,DANGGAIPICHANPINDESHULIANGJIANSHAODAOJIZHUNSHUSHIZHAIXIAKANBAN,SONGHUIDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,RANHOUSHENGCHANGONGXUANGAIKANBANDEZHISHIKAISHISHENGCHAN。LINGWAI,CONGLINGBUJIANCHUKUDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,YEKELIYONGXINHAOKANBANLAIJINXINGZHISHIPEISONG。


工序间看板


GONGXUJIANKANBANSHIZHIGONGCHANGNEIBUHOUGONGXUDAOQIANGONGXULINGQUSUOXUDELINGBUJIANSHISUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。DIANXINGDEGONGXUJIANKANBAN,QIANGONGXUWEIBUJIAN1#XIAN,BENGONGXUZONGZHUANG2#XIANSUOXUYAODESHIHAOMAWEIA232-60857DELINGBUJIAN,GENJUKANBANJIUKEDAOQIANYIDAOGONGXULINGQU。


外协看板


WAIXIEKANBANSHIZHENDUIWAIBUDEXIEZUOCHANGJIASUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。DUIWAIDINGHUOKANBANSHANGBIXUJIZAIJINHUODANWEIDEMINGCHENGHEJINHUOSHIJIAN、MEICIJINHUODESHULIANGDENGXINXI。WAIXIEKANBANYUGONGXUJIANKANBANLEISI,ZHISHI“QIANGONGXU”BUSHINEIBUDEGONGXUERSHIGONGYINGSHANG,TONGGUOWAIXIEKANBANDEFANGSHI,CONGZUIHOUYIDAOGONGXUMANMANWANGQIANLADONG,ZHIZHIGONGYINGSHANG。YINCI,YOUSHIHOUQIYEHUIYAOQIUGONGYINGSHANGYETUIXINGJITSHENGCHANFANGSHI。


临时看板


LINSHIKANBANSHIZAIJINXINGSHEBEIBAOQUAN、SHEBEIXIULI、LINSHIRENWUHUOXUYAOJIABANSHENGCHANDESHIHOUSUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。YUQITAZHONGLEIDEKANBANBUTONGDESHI,LINSHIKANBANZHUYAOSHIWEILEWANCHENGFEIJIHUANEIDESHENGCHANHUOSHEBEIWEIHUDENGRENWU,YINERLINGHUOXINGBIJIAODA。


6.看板管理的使用方法  


KANBANYOURUOGANZHONGLEI,YINERKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFAYEBUJINXIANGTONG。RUGUOBUZHOUMIDEZHIDINGKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFA,SHENGCHANJIUWUFAZHENGCHANGJINXING,WOMENCONGKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFASHANGKEYIJINYIBULINGHUIJITSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEDUTEXING。ZAISHIYONGKANBANSHI,MEIYIGECHUANSONGKANBANZHIDUIYINGYIZHONGLINGBUJIAN,MEIZHONGLINGBUJIANZONGSHICUNFANGZAIGUIDINGDE、XIANGYINGDERONGQINEI。YINCI,MEIGECHUANSONGKANBANDUIYINGDERONGQIYESHIYIDINGDE。


工序内看板的使用方法


GONGXUNEIKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFAZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYIDIANSHIKANBANBIXUSUISHIWU,JIYUCHANPINYIQIYIDONG。HOUGONGXULAILINGQUZHONGJIANPINSHIZHAIXIAGUAZAICHANPINSHANGDEGONGXUNEIKANBAN,RANHOUGUASHANGLINGQUYONGDEGONGXUJIANKANBAN。GAIGONGXURANHOUANZHAOKANBANBEIZHAIXIADESHUNXUYIJIZHEIXIEKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDESHULIANGJINXINGSHENGCHAN,RUGUOZHAIXIADEKANBANSHULIANGBIANWEILING,ZETINGZHISHENGCHAN,ZHEIYANGJIBUHUIYANWUYEBUHUICHANSHENGGUOLIANGDECUNCHU。


信号看板的使用方法


XINHAOKANBANGUAZAICHENGPIZHIZUOCHUDECHANPINSHANGMIAN。RUGUOGAIPICHANPINDESHULIANGJIANSHAODAOJIZHUNSHUSHIJIUZHAIXIAKANBAN,SONGHUIDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,RANHOUSHENGCHANGONGXUANZHAOGAIKANBANDEZHISHIKAISHISHENGCHAN。MEIYOUZHAIPAIZESHUOMINGSHULIANGZUGOU,BUXUYAOZAISHENG?


工序间看板的使用方法


GONGXUJIANKANBANGUAZAICONGQIANGONGXULINGLAIDELINGBUJIANDEXIANGZISHANG,DANGGAILINGBUJIANBEISHIYONGHOU,QUXIAKANBAN,FANGDAOSHEZHIZAIZUOYECHANGDIDEKANBANHUISHOUXIANGNEI。KANBANHUISHOUXIANGZHONGDEGONGXUJIANKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEYISISHI“GAILINGJIANYIBEISHIYONG,QINGBUCHONG”。XIANCHANGGUANLIRENYUANDINGSHILAIHUISHOUKANBAN,JIZHONGQILAIHOUZAIFENSONGDAOGEGEXIANGYINGDEQIANGONGXU,YIBIANLINGQUXUYAOBUCHONGDELINGBUJIAN。


外协看板管理的使用方法


WAIXIEKANBANDEZHAIXIAHEHUISHOUYUGONGXUJIANKANBANJIBENXIANGTONG。HUISHOUYIHOUANGEXIEZUOCHANGJIAFENKAI,DENGGEXIEZUOCHANGJIALAISONGHUOSHIYOUTAMENDAIHUIQU,CHENGWEIGAICHANGXIACISHENGCHANDESHENGCHANZHISHI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,GAIPICHANPINDEJINHUOZHISHAOJIANGHUIYANCHIYIHUIYISHANG。YINCI,XUYAOANZHAOYANCHIDEHUISHUFAXINGXIANGYINGDEKANBANSHULIANG,ZHEIYANGJIUNENGGOUZUODAOANZHAOJITJINXINGXUNHUAN。


7.用看板管理组织生产的过程  


JIT是拉动式的生产,通过电子看板来传递信息,从最后一道工序一步一步往前工序拉动。例如生产过程共有三道工序,从第三道工序的入口存放处向第二道工序的出口存放处传递信息,第二道工序从其入口存放处向第一道工序出口存放处传递信息,而第一道工序则从其入口存放处向原料库领取原料。这样,通过看板管理就将整个生产过程有机的组织起来。

标签:看板管理